A review of the newly developed method used to prevent liquefaction of iron ore fines on bulk carriers

Michael C. Munro and Abbas Mohajerani


Liquefaction is a commonly occurring problem affecting solid bulk cargoes on board bulk carriers. If liquefaction of a solid bulk cargo occurs on board a bulk carrier it can result in the vessel listing or capsizing resulting in the loss of human life and industry assets. Recent incidents involving bulk carriers transporting iron ore fines have initiated research into, and implementation of, a new test method used to determine a safe moisture content at which it can be transported without being at risk of liquefying. The new test method, known as the ‘Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Test for Iron Ore Fines’, has been amended in the 2015 edition of the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code and will be entered into force in 2017. The objective of this paper is to provide a review regarding the development of the Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Test developed by the Iron Ore Technical Working Group. The review focusses on the key findings from five publicly available reports released in 2013.