Engineers Australia

Estimation of tunnelling induced ground movements – Part 2: Application

Logan N. Loganathan, Richard F. Flanagan and Harry G. Poulos


This paper presents the application of the theoretical methods described in Part 1. Two case histories are presented, namely (i) Deep Tunnel Sewerage System, Singapore, and (ii) Airport Link, Sydney, Australia. Ground loss values were predicted based on the tunnel boring machine configurations, ground properties and tunnel excavation methods as described in Part 1. The predictions were then compared with back calculated ground loss values in the field. Similarly, tunnelling-induced ground movements were predicted using theories presented in Part 1 of this paper and then compared with the field measurements. Predictions of the proposed theories match well with the measured ground loss values and ground deformations.